Teeny Tiny Motors That Fit in Your Body

Imagine tiny gadgets wandering around in your bloodstream, travelling into your cells to seek out infections and fight diseases… Does it sound too fantastic to be true? Let’s explore just how close this science fiction scenario is to a reality.

1 - robot in red blood cells

Before we get too far into this story, let’s first see where the idea of really, really small motors comes from. In 1954, the gifted physicist Richard Feynman issued a $1,000 challenge in his speech at Caltech.1 He offered a big prize to the first person able to create an operating electrical motor smaller than 1/64 inch (about 50 times smaller than a pocket-size flash drive!). Scaling it down was a great challenge since the effect of shrinking the size on the operation of the motor was unpredictable.  But to Feynman’s surprise, shortly after the speech, an electrical engineer built the world’s smallest hand-made machine at the time. The challenge-winning motor, while not quite on the nano-scale, undoubtedly inspired scientists and triggered research on future applications of very small, functioning motors. Continue reading

Bright Nanoparticles + Glowing Bacteria = Beautiful, Useful Pictures

One major type of output from university research labs is the publication of scientific results in scientific journals. When we write these papers, our target audience is not the general public; rather, we are writing for experts in our area to tell them what we’ve accomplished so that they can build on our work in their own continuing research. These journal articles are an often-used measure of a university professor or graduate student’s success – people track how many scientific journal articles they’ve published and how many people have cited their papers in ongoing work. From the perspective of the general public, however, scientific journal articles can be difficult to read and digest. That said, they are critical to keep the scientific enterprise moving forward. If everyone kept their experimental results to themselves, much time and money would be wasted as many laboratories unknowingly pursued the same experiments.

Two of the scientists in our center using a microscope at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Two of the scientists in our center using a microscope at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

In hopes of making a recent Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology paper more relevant to the general public, I’m going to spend this blog post describing recent work and explaining why it’s important. Recently, some of the researchers in our center published a paper titled, “Facile Method to Stain the Bacterial Cell Surface for Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy” in a journal known as Analyst. The title alone can be quite intimidating but, put simply, this paper describes a way that researchers in our center have been able to visualize bacterial cells more clearly than can be done with any standard light microscopes. Continue reading

Not Your Daddy’s Sunblock – Why Thick, White Sunblock is a Thing of the Past

Not Your Daddy’s Sunblock – Why Thick, White Sunblock is a Thing of the Past

As a child, I spent many summer days at the beach in southern California. I remember playing in the surf, collecting shells, watching sea lions, and seeing the white noses of the lifeguards. In those days, lifeguards smeared thick, white zinc oxide paste on their noses to protect themselves from getting sunburned

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My nose, smeared in Zinka Sunblock, which contains zinc oxide particles

When my kids were young there was a brief period when colored zinc oxide sunblock seemed to be in vogue

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My nose, smeared in colored Zinka Sunblock

Nowadays, we still use zinc oxide in sunblocks, but it’s no longer white or colored; it’s transparent! How can this be? It’s the same material!!

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Nano-Sensors: Small size, big impact

If you took high school chemistry, you might remember using pH indicator strips. You’d take a piece of the specially treated paper, dip it in your solution, and watch it change color depending on whether you had an acid or base.

At the time, you might have been more excited by the fact that the paper changed color than about what you were accomplishing with the task. However, chemical sensors aren’t just visually appealing—they also play an important role in monitoring conditions both inside and outside of the lab. Continue reading

Nanoparticles in Prosthetics & Bionics

During my time in the Marine Corps I met several people that lost limbs in the war. I made the decision to leave the service to get my degree. Inspired by my fellow soldiers, my ultimate goal is to start a company making prosthetics and bionic limbs, hopefully making their lives a little bit easier.

Flight into Iraq

Flight into Iraq

One problem with prosthetics is that they can only be worn for a short period of time. This is partly due to discomfort issues. However, a more serious concern is infection. Our bodies sweat and move constantly, so there is an increased risk of irritation and subsequent infection with long-term prosthetic use.

Several products have been created and tested that help reduce infections caused by implantable medical devices. Some of these products use silver nanoparticles. As we’ve discussed before on this blog (entry 1, entry 2), silver nanoparticles fight microbes by slowly releasing silver ions that are toxic to bacteria and other microbial pests. The surface of implantable medical devices can be coated with silver nanoparticles, and the slow release of silver ions helps keep the area of implantation free of infection.

Perhaps one day prosthetic materials coated with silver nanoparticles will be widely available (perhaps made by my company!). While I have only been conducting nanoparticle research through the Research Experiences for Veterans program for about two months, I have learned a tremendous amount about some of the exciting advances in nanotechnology. This is just a glimpse into my first exciting idea, and I’m sure to have more as my technical experience grows.

Liposuction and Gold Nanoparticles

Scientists have discovered that tiny particles of gold injected into fat tissues can offer a new and potentially safer way to carry out liposuction procedures. Liposuction by definition is the process of removing excess fat found underneath the skin by suction. Although liposuction has a reputation as a low risk cosmetic surgery, this procedure is not without its problems. One of the primary problems stems from the fact that fat is not an isolated feature of the body. Simply put, nerves and other closely located tissues may be removed along with the fat. Recent research shows that gold nanoparticles may be the solution to this problem. Problems associated with liposuction deserve some attention, as this is one of the most commonly performed cosmetic surgeries and people ranging from ages twelve to eighty-seven have had this procedure.

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Our Hidden Bacterial Friends Keep Us All Alive – Shewanella oneidensis

While the word “bacteria” conjures images of human illness and death for many people, the vast majority of bacteria in the world allow for the healthy functioning of humans and ecosystems. The way they do this ranges from breaking down food in animals’ digestive systems (yes, even ours) to cycling life-giving chemical elements from things like sediment and rocks back into living food chains. Today I will be discussing only one aspect of only one of our hidden little friends—Shewanella oneidensis’ power to mobilize the critical element iron for use by other organisms. Without Shewanella, you and I and most other life on earth would have a big problem on our hands.

Bacteria help make this possible. Image source

Bacteria help make this possible. Image source

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